PI: Kevin Pelphrey
Institution: George Washington University


The term autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) exemplifies the tremendous heterogeneity in this developmental disorder at both the phenotypic and underlying genetic levels. It has repeatedly been observed that ASD disproportionately affects males relative to females. So while ASD encompasses a set of neurodevelopmental conditions the sources of this striking sex-related disparity (with an estimated male-to-female ratio of 4:1) remains unknown. Though several hypotheses attempt to explain this sex bias, no clear answers have emerged because of inconsistent and incomplete phenotyping and small sample sizes.